This is a simplified version of Pinyin table that has omitted all the unnecessary rules from the official standard. It is much more direct and intuitive, therefore it is easier to learn than the standard rules.
Replace ü with u in any syllables that begin with initials j, q, x & y.
ü is used in written form only when ambiguity could arise from similar initials containing an u, such as nu and nü. ü is always written as u when it is part of the syllables that begin with initials j, q, x & y, because finals u will never appear in any of those syllables, such as jü is written as ju. However, this rule is only applicable to written form, pronunciation remains as it is.
Pitch marker placement.
Pitch marker always place above one of the single finals (a,o,e,i,u,ü), but a has the highest priority.
- bāo, bāi, biāo, biān.
If a does not exist in the syllable, put the marker above either o or e.
- dōu, duō, xiōng, bēi, biē.
If both i and u exist in the same syllable, put the marker above whichever at the last.